Flora of Sumatra : Vascular plant collection from Batang Toru Forest deposited in ANDA Herbarium

Latest version published by Herbarium of Andalas University on May 23, 2022 Herbarium of Andalas University

Batang Toru Forest, a region in Tapanuli, North Sumatra harbors incredible species diversity. It is home for the Orangutan species Pongo tapanuliensis. We surveyed 10 sites in Batang Toru Forest, collected 3682 sheets of specimens in 1033 species, consisting of 97 families, and 288 genera. Euphorbiaceae is family with the most species found in Batang Toru forest. Among them, 159 species are listed under IUCN Redlist and six species are protected by the Indonesian government.

Data Records

The data in this occurrence resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 3,682 records.

This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.

Downloads

Download the latest version of this resource data as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A) or the resource metadata as EML or RTF:

Data as a DwC-A file download 3,682 records in English (105 KB) - Update frequency: unknown
Metadata as an EML file download in English (109 KB)
Metadata as an RTF file download in English (37 KB)

Versions

The table below shows only published versions of the resource that are publicly accessible.

How to cite

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

Nurainas N, Amolia R R, Taufiq A, Handika H, Syamsuardi S (2022): Flora of Sumatra : Vascular plant collection from Batang Toru Forest deposited in ANDA Herbarium. v1.27. Herbarium of Andalas University. Dataset/Occurrence. http://ipt.biologi.lipi.go.id/resource?r=flora_of_sumatra_batang_toru_forest&v=1.27

Rights

Researchers should respect the following rights statement:

The publisher and rights holder of this work is Herbarium of Andalas University. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC-BY-NC) 4.0 License.

GBIF Registration

This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: 10f8ba9a-e298-4256-88b0-997205d66a30.  Herbarium of Andalas University publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by Indonesian Biodiversity Information Facility.

Keywords

Occurrence; Batang Toru; ANDA; Occurrence

Contacts

Who created the resource:

Nurainas Nurainas
Leader Project
ANDA Herbarium Limau Manis 25163 Padang West Sumatra ID +6281310818597
Rezi Rahmi Amolia
Data Collector
ANDA Herbarium Limau Manis 25163 Padang West Sumatra ID +6285263516816
Ahmad Taufiq
Data Manager
ANDA Herbarium Bandar Buat 25163 Padang West Sumatra ID +6281363457262
Heru Handika
Researcher
Museum of Natural Science and Department Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University Baton Rouge US +12259165691
Syamsuardi Syamsuardi
Curator
Laboratory of Plant Taxonomy, Department of Biology, Mathematics and Natural Science, Andalas University 25163 Padang West Sumatra ID +6281374777749

Who can answer questions about the resource:

Nurainas Nurainas
Leader Project
ANDA Herbarium Limau manis 25163 Padang West Sumatra ID +6281310818597

Who filled in the metadata:

Ahmad Taufiq
Data Manager
ANDA Herbarium Bandar Buat 25163 Padang West Sumatra ID +6281363457262

Geographic Coverage

Batang Toru forest is a part of Bukit Barisan mountain ranges, encompassing 150,000 hectares of forest in three Tapanuli districts of North Sumatra, Indonesia. About 85 percent of Batang Toru forest is protected and the rest of it is used as production forest and other usages. We collected samples in Batang Toru from several sites, consisting of Lobu Sitompul, around Batang Goar river, Aek Somakkar, Sitandiang, Hutaimbaru, Hopong, Namorabayo, Bulu Mario, PT. Sarulla Operation Ltd (Pahae Jae), and Orangutan Research Station (Haramunting).

Bounding Coordinates South West [0.396, 98.943], North East [1.779, 100.085]

Taxonomic Coverage

We have digitized 3682 sheets of specimens in the group of Magnoliopsida and Liliopsida, consisting of 97 families: Acanthaceae, Achariaceae, Actinidiaceae, Adoxaceae, Altingiaceae, Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Apocynaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Araceae, Araliaceae, Araucariaceae, Arecaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Asparagaceae, Begoniaceae, Bignoniaceae, Boraginaceae, Burseraceae, Campanulaceae, Cannabaceae, Casuarinaceae, Celastraceae, Centroplacaceae, Chloranthaceae, Clethraceae, Clusiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Hypericaceae, Commelinaceae, Connaraceae, Cornaceae, Crypteroniaceae, Cunoniaceae, Daphniphyllaceae, Datiscaceae, Dilleniaceae, Dioscoreaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Ebenaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Ericaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae, Gentianaceae, Gesneriaceae, Gnetaceae, Haloragaceae, Hammamelidaceae, Hanguanaceae, Hypoxidaceae, Ixonanthaceae, Juglandaceae, Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Loranthaceae, Magnoliaceae, Malvaceae, Melastomataceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae, Myristicaceae, Myrtaceae, Nepenthaceae, Ochnaceae, Orchidaceae, Pandaceae, Pandanaceae, Pentaphylacaceae, Podocarpaceae, Polygalaceae, Primulaceae, Proteaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rhizophoraceae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, Sabiaceae, Salicaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae, Schisandraceae, Simaroubaceae, Smilacaceae, Staphylaceae, Stemonuraceae, Styracaceae, Symplocaceae, Theaceae, Thymelaeaceae, Torricelliaceae, Urticaceae, Vitaceae, Xanthorrhoeceae. In total, we have digitized 1033 species in 288 genera from all the families. The most digitized genera are in the family of Euphorbiaceae. Among all of the species that have been digitized, 159 species are listed in IUCN Redlist database, consisting of Conservation dependent (2 species), Data deficient (3 species), Least Concern (117 species), Vulnerable (11 species), Near Threatened (11 species), Endangered (6 species) and Critically Endangered (9 species) (IUCN, 2019). Furthermore, 6 species are listed as protected species under the government regulation of the Indonesian Ministry of Environment and Forestry (P.92/MENLHK/SETJEN/KUM.1/8/2018). Among all the species that have been digitized, 12 species are endemic to Sumatra.

Family  Acanthaceae (Acanthus),  Achariaceae (Acharia),  Actinidiaceae (Chinese gooseberry),  Adoxaceae (Moschatel),  Altingiaceae (Rasamala),  Anacardiaceae (Cashew),  Annonaceae (Custard apple),  Apocynaceae (Dogbane),  Aquifoliaceae (Holly),  Araceae (Arum),  Araliaceae (Ginseng),  Araucariaceae (Araucarians),  Arecaceae (Palm tree),  Aristolochiaceae (Dutchman's pipe),  Asparagaceae (Asparagus),  Begoniaceae (Begonia),  Bignoniaceae (Bignonias),  Boraginaceae (Borage),  Burseraceae (Torchwood),  Campanulaceae (Bellflower),  Cannabaceae (Hemp),  Casuarinaceae (Sheoak),  Celastraceae (Staff tree),  Centroplacaceae,  Chloranthaceae,  Clethraceae,  Clusiaceae (Bintangor),  Commelinaceae (Spiderwort),  Connaraceae (Zebrawoordt),  Cornaceae (Dogwood),  Crypteroniaceae,  Cunoniaceae (Butterspoon tree),  Daphniphyllaceae (Daphne-leaf),  Datiscaceae (Datiscas),  Dilleniaceae (Simpoh),  Dioscoreaceae (Air potato),  Dipterocarpaceae (Keruing),  Ebenaceae (Ebony),  Elaeocarpaceae (Mendong),  Ericaceae (Cantigi),  Euphorbiaceae (Spurge),  Fabaceae (Legume),  Fagaceae (Oak),  Gesneriaceae (Mapele),  Gnetaceae,  Haloragaceae (Watermilfoil),  Hamamelidaceae (Witch-hazel),  Hanguanaceae,  Hypericaceae,  Hypoxidaceae,  Ixonanthaceae (Sangkan merah),  Juglandaceae (Walnut),  Lamiaceae (Deadnettle),  Lauraceae (Laurel),  Loganiaceae,  Loranthaceae,  Magnoliaceae (Magnolia),  Malvaceae (Mallow),  Melastomataceae (Melastoma),  Meliaceae (Mallow),  Moraceae (Mulberry),  Myristicaceae (Nutmeg),  Myrtaceae (Myrtle),  Nepenthaceae (Pitcher plant),  Ochnaceae,  Orchidaceae (Orchid),  Pandaceae (Kayu busih),  Pandanaceae (Screw pine),  Pentaphylacaceae,  Piperaceae (Pepper),  Podocarpaceae (Podocarp),  Polygalaceae (Milwort),  Primulaceae (Sasapuan),  Proteaceae (Protea),  Rhamnaceae (Buckthorn),  Rhizophoraceae,  Rosaceae (Rose),  Rubiaceae (Madder),  Rutaceae (Rue),  Sabiaceae,  Salicaceae (Willow),  Sapindaceae (Soapberry),  Sapotaceae (Manatu),  Schisandraceae (Stavine),  Simaroubaceae (Quassia),  Smilacaceae (Greenbrier),  Staphylaceae (Bladdernut),  Symplocaceae (Asiatic sweetleaf),  Theaceae (Tea plant),  Thymelaeaceae,  Torricelliaceae (Sebalai),  Urticaceae (Nettle),  Vitaceae (Grape),  Xanthorrhoeaceae
Genus  Acalypha (Cooper leaf),  Acer (Maple),  Acronychia,  Actinodaphne (Medan payung),  Adinandra (Tetiup),  Aeschynanthus (Lipstick plant),  Agathis (Damar minyak),  Agelaea (Akar itam),  Aglaia (Aglaia),  Aidia (Archer Cherry),  Alangium (Jadam),  Allomorphia,  Allophyllus (Pamaman),  Alphonsea (Pisang-pisang),  Alseodaphne (Medang),  Alstonia (Pulai),  Altingia (Rasamala),  Amischolotype (Graceful forrestia),  Anneslea,  Antidesma (Bah jerawai),  Aporosa (Kumpang),  Aquilaria (Agar wood),  Aralidium (Sebalai),  Archidendron,  Ardisia (Coralberry),  Argostemma (Corncockle),  Aristolochia (Dutchman's pipe),  Aristotelia (Maquei),  Artabotrys (Akar pisang-pisang),  Arthrophyllum (Ivy palm),  Artocarpus,  Astronia,  Baccaurea (Belembik),  Balakata (Mousedeers rubber tree),  Bauhinia,  Begonia (Begonia),  Bhesa (Biku-biku),  Blumeodendron (Gaham badak),  Borreria,  Bouea (Gandaria),  Brackenridgea,  Breynia (Fart bush),  Buchanania (Otak udang),  Calamus (Rattan),  Callicarpa (Beautyberry),  Calophyllum (Bintangor),  Campnosperma (Terentang),  Canarium (Kenari nut),  Canthium (Green coffee),  Carallia (Meransi),  Casearia,  Castanopsis (Berangan),  Cephalomappa (Bantal),  Chisocheton (Lantupak),  Cinnamomum (Cinnamon),  Claoxylon (Gispang),  Clausena,  Cleidion,  Cleistanthus (Komuning),  Clerodendrum (Bleeding heart),  Clethra (Sweetpepperbush),  Clidemia (Soapbush),  Cnestis,  Codonoboea,  Coelestegia (Piunggai),  Coffea (Coffee),  Cordia (Manjack),  Crypteronia (Garumara),  Cryptocarya (Medang),  Curculigo (Palm grass),  Cyathocalyx (Antoi),  Cyrtandra (Mapele),  Dacrycarpus (Podo),  Dacrydium (Rimu),  Dacryodes (Kedondong),  Daphne,  Daphniphyllum,  Dasymaschalon (Lanutan),  Debregeasia (Orang wild rhea),  Dehaasia,  Dendrocnide,  Dendrophtoe,  Derris (Bengali),  Dialium (Velvet tamarind),  Dianella (Flax-lily),  Didissandra (Tarom hutan),  Didymocarpus (Dwarf chirita),  Dillenia (Simpoh),  Diospyros (Kayu arang),  Diplospora (Gading-gading),  Diplycosia,  Dipterocarpus (Keruing),  Dissochaeta,  Dracaena (Female dragon),  Drimycarpus (Kuduran),  Dryobalanops (Champor),  Drypetes (Bintang babas),  Durio (Durian),  Dyera (Jelutong),  Dysoxylum,  Elaeocarpus (Mendong),  Elateriospemum (Perah),  Embelia (False black pepper),  Endiandra,  Endospermum (Antah bulan),  Engelhardia (Walnut),  Euonymus (Wintercreeper),  Eurya (Eurya),  Eurycoma (Tongkat ali),  Evodia,  Exbucklandia (Gerok),  Fagraea (Tembusu),  Ficus (Fig tree),  Firmiana (Parasol tree),  Fissistigma (Larak api),  Flacourtia (Indian plum),  Freycinetia,  Friesodielsia,  Gaertnera,  Galearia (Kayu busih),  Garcinia (Kandis),  Gironniera (Medang kasap),  Glochidion (Sakah-sakah),  Gluta (Rengas),  Glycosmis (Orangeberry),  Gnetum (Meninjau),  Gomphia (Toothed-leaf gomphia),  Goniothalamus (Mempisang),  Gonocarpus (Raspwort),  Gonystylus (Ramin),  Gordonia (Gordonia),  Greenea,  Grewia (Chenderai),  Guioa (Senyamok),  Gymnacranthera,  Gymnostoma,  Gynotroches,  Hancea (Enserai),  Hanguana,  Harpullia (Tulipwood),  Hedyotis (Starviolet),  Helicia (Silver oak),  Heritiera (Mengkulang),  Hopea (Merawan),  Horsfieldia,  Hydnocarpus (Setumpol),  Ilex (Mensirah),  Ilicium (Star anise),  Ixonanthes (Sangkan merah),  Ixora (Jungle flame),  Kibatalia (Jelutong pipit),  Knema,  Koompassia (Kempas),  Lansium,  Lasianthus,  Lecanorchis (Orchid),  Leea (Mali-mali),  Lepisanthes (Trengganu cherry),  Liebigia,  Lindera (Spicewood),  Lithocarpus (Tanoak),  Litsea,  Lobelia (Lobelias),  Maasia,  Macaranga (Mahang),  Machilus,  Madhuca (Nyatoh),  Magnolia (Magnolia),  Mallotus (Balik angin),  Mangifera (Mango),  Marantodes (Kacip fatimah),  Medinilla (Rose grape),  Melanochyla (Rengas padi),  Melastoma (Melastoma),  Melia (Chinaberry),  Melicope,  Meliosma (Worm-head tree),  Memecylon,  Mesua (Penaga),  Mezzettia (Mempisang),  Microcos,  Mischocarpus (Sugi),  Myristica,  Nauclea (Mengkal),  Neolamarckia (Burflower tree),  Neolitsea,  Nepenthes (Pitcher),  Nephelium (Rambutan),  Nessia (Benggang),  Octomelis,  Omphalea,  Ophiorrhiza,  Oreocnide,  Orophea,  Pachycentria,  Palaquium (Nato nasi),  Paratocarpus (Ara berteh),  Parinari (Merbatu),  Parkia (Petai),  Payena (Nyatoh),  Pellacalyx,  Persea,  Phaeanthus,  Philodendron,  Phoebe,  Phyllagathis,  Pimelodendron (Perah ikan),  Piper (Pepper),  Pleiocarpidia,  Podocarpus (Brown pine),  Podochilus,  Polyalthia,  Pometia (Fijian longan),  Popowia,  Pothos (Pothos vine),  Pouteria (Nyatoh),  Puzolzia,  Praravinia,  Prismatomeris,  Prunus (Janteli),  Pseuduvaria,  Psychotria,  Pternandra,  Pterocymbium (Melembu),  Quercus (Oak),  Radermachera,  Randia (Indigoberry),  Rapanea (Colicwood),  Raphidophora,  Rhodamnia (Mempoyan),  Rhododendron,  Rhodoleia (Kerlik),  Rigiolepis,  Rubus (Bareti),  Ryparosa (Trunk bumpy),  Sageraea,  Sandoricum (Cotton fruit),  Santiria (Kedondong kerantai),  Sapium,  Sarcandra (Nine-knotted flower),  Saurauia,  Scaphium (Kelumpang),  Schefflera,  Schima (Needlewood tree),  Scolopia,  Scurrula,  Semecarpus (Rengas),  Shorea (Meranti),  Smilax (Sarsaparilla),  Sonerila,  Spondias (Mombin),  Stemonurus,  Sterculia,  Streblus,  Strobilanthes (Persian shield),  Strychnos,  Styrax (Snowbell),  Suregada (Suregada),  Swintonia (Merpauh),  Symplocos,  Syzygium (Kelat),  Tabernaemontana (Pinwheel flower),  Tacca (Bat flower),  Tarena,  Teijsmanniodendron,  Ternstroemia,  Tetracera (Stone leaf),  Timonius,  Trigonostemon (Jingah tulang tiga),  Tristaniopsis,  Turpinia,  Urophyllum,  Uvaria,  Vaccinium (Bluberry),  Vatica (Meranti),  Viburnum (Snowball bush),  Vitex (Chaste tree),  Vitis,  Voacanga,  Weinmannia (Rese marara),  Willughbeia,  Xanthophyllum (Nyalin),  Xylopia (Jangkang),  Zizyphus (Jujube)

Temporal Coverage

Start Date / End Date 2014-10-18 / 2018-08-28

Project Data

The project started in August 2018 and will end in March 2020. The aims of the project are to digitize and publish the collection from Batang Toru forest deposited at Herbarium ANDA. The participants and the main stakeholders involved in the projects consisted of students and lecturers at the Department of Biology at Andalas University, some world’s well-known herbariums including their staffs, and our domestic partner, the Indonesian Biodiversity Information Facility, as well as respected plant taxonomists working on the targeted taxa. Students and lecturers at the department of biology Andalas University are our main partner to provide supports for the project from within the university. ANDA herbarium partners participate for data verification and specimen identification. InaBIF provides us with their expertise and support for data publication.

Title Flora of Sumatra : Vascular plant collection from Batang Toru Forest deposited in ANDA Herbarium
Identifier BIFA4_023
Funding GBIF Grant Letter 2019 (Collections data mobilization grant), BIFA4_023
Study Area Description The main collections are from Batang Toru Forest, North Sumatra.
Design Description The information on the specimen labels is our main data source. For data collection, we conducted in three steps: data capture, data cleaning, and data publication. In the data capture process, we collected all the information on the specimen’s label, and we input the information into Microsoft Excel spreadsheets using Darwin-Core format. In this process, we grouped the specimen information into three groups, consisting of data occurrence, taxon information, and event. We save the file in csv (comma-separated values) format. We included specimen photos and scanning data into the database incorporated in associateMedia field. All the images were stored in flickr-pro media, which then will link with the filed in the dataset. We conducted data cleaning to ensure consistency and standardized data input for the dataset. We used OpenRefine for batch error handling, Canadensys tools for coordinate conversion, and Splink for coordinate verification. To verify the taxonomic nomenclature, we used resolver, iPlant collaborative, ECAT, and Plant list. All the tools we used are open-source software or available as an open online platform. Data publication includes data publishing on GBIF and scientific papers. We published all the dataset that has been cleaned and verified according to our standard on GBIF website using Integrated Publishing Toolkit (IPT) available through the link http://ipt.biologi.lipi.go.id/.

The personnel involved in the project:

Principal Investigator
Nurainas Nurainas
Content Provider
Ahmad Taufiq
Reviewer
Syamsuardi Syamsuardi
Reviewer
Heru Handika
Metadata Provider
Try Surya Harapan
Metadata Provider
Rezi Rahmi Amolia
Metadata Provider
Firham Yasra
Metadata Provider
Muhammad Ikhsan
Metadata Provider
Atiqa Zhafira
Metadata Provider
Suci Ramadani
Metadata Provider
Ardea Musfar
Metadata Provider
Indah Rahayu Pratiwi
Metadata Provider
Fajri Laili
Metadata Provider
Thoriq Alfath Febriamansyah
Metadata Provider
Panji Christy
Metadata Provider
Indah Sukarjo
Metadata Provider
Witri Zulaspita

Sampling Methods

The collecting method for the dried specimens was referred to published procedures of preparing herbarium materials (Bridson and Forman,1992). The plant materials were collected and pressed in the field then mounted on an A2 paper after the specimens were dried. Before installation into the herbarium cabinets, the specimens were put into plastic bags. Every sheet of specimens was labeled with the standard information for herbarium collections, including taxonomic identification, locality information, geo-references, collector information, and ecological data. For insect control, we freeze the specimens periodically in -20 degrees Celsius freezer for 72 hours. The storage rooms were equipped with temperature and humidity control. All of the specimens were in alphabetical orders based on the families, grouped in several groups of plants, such as dicots and monocots.

Study Extent The collections hosted at the Herbarium ANDA were from research in Batang Toru Forest. The collecting methods were using the standard collecting method for dried specimens.
Quality Control We divided our working groups into two groups: a) taxonomic determination or identification group and b) data geo-referencing group. For taxonomic determination, the identification was verified by experts on the designated taxa, and also was using book references for the taxa (Ashton, 1982; Ng, 1978; Ng, 1989; Kalkman, 1993; Shaw, 1981; Whitmore, 1972; Symington, 1974). The datum references for each coordinate were collected from the specimen labels using the WGS84 standard.

Method step description:

  1. The information on the specimen labels is our main data source. For data collection, we conducted in three steps: data capture, data cleaning, and data publication. In the data capture process, we collected all the information on the specimen’s label, and we input the information into Microsoft Excel spreadsheets using Darwin-Core format. In this process, we grouped the specimen information into three groups, consisting of data occurrence, taxon information, and event. We save the file in csv (comma-separated values) format. We included specimen photos and scanning data into the database incorporated in associateMedia field. All the images were stored in flickr-pro media, which then will link with the filed in the dataset. We conducted data cleaning to ensure consistency and standardized data input for the dataset. We used OpenRefine for batch error handling, Canadensys tools for coordinate conversion, and Splink for coordinate verification. To verify the taxonomic nomenclature, we used resolver, iPlant collaborative, ECAT, and Plant list. All the tools we used are open-source software or available as an open online platform. Data publication includes data publishing on GBIF and scientific papers. We published all the dataset that has been cleaned and verified according to our standard on GBIF website using Integrated Publishing Toolkit (IPT) available through the link http://ipt.biologi.lipi.go.id/.

Collection Data

Collection Name Specimen Herbarium Universitas Andalas (ANDA)
Specimen preservation methods Mounted
Curatorial Units Count 3,682 +/- 3,681 Sheets

Bibliographic Citations

  1. Ashton, P. S. 1982. Flora Malesiana. Series I-Spermatophyta. Flowering Plants Vol. 9, part 2, Dipterocarpaceae. Martinus Nijhoff. The Hague, Boston, London.
  2. Bridson, D., Forman, L. 1992. The Herbarium Handbook. Whitstable Litho Printers Ltd. Great Britain.
  3. IUCN. 2019. https://www.iucnredlist.org/. Accessed in October 2019.
  4. Kalkman, C. (1993). Rosaceae. Flora Malesiana-Series 1, Spermatophyta, 11(2), 227-351.
  5. Kementrian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan Republik Indonesia. Peraturan Mentri Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan Republik Indonesia Nomor P.92/MENLHK/SETJEN/KUM.1/8/2018. Tentang Jenis Tumbuhan Satwa yang dilindungi.
  6. Ng, F. S. P. 1978. Tree Flora of Malaya, A Manual for Foresters. Volume Three. Forest Department Ministry of Primary Industries Malaysia. Longman Malaysia.
  7. Ng, F. S. P. 1989. Tree Flora of Malaya, A Manual for Foresters. Volume Four. Forest Department Ministry of Primary Industries Malaysia. Longman Malaysia.
  8. Plant List. 2019. http://www.theplantlist.org/. Accessed October 2019.
  9. Shaw, H. A. (1981). the Euphorbiaceae of Sumatra. Kew Bulletin, 239-374.
  10. Symington, C. F. 1974. Malayan Forest Records No. 16, Foresters Manual of Dipterocarps. Universiti Malaya Kuala Lumpur.
  11. Whitmore, T. C. 1972. Tree Flora of Malaya, A Manual for Foresters. Volume One. Forest Department Ministry of Primary Industries Malaysia. Longman Malaysia.
  12. Whitmore, T. C. 1972. Tree Flora of Malaya, Volume two. Forest Department Ministry of Primary Industries Malaysia. Longman Malaysia.

Additional Metadata

Purpose The aim of the project was to digitize and publish the collection from Batang Toru forest deposited at Herbarium ANDA.
Alternative Identifiers 10f8ba9a-e298-4256-88b0-997205d66a30
http://ipt.biologi.lipi.go.id/resource?r=flora_of_sumatra_batang_toru_forest